AWS Load Balancer
How it Works
Application Load Balancer:
In the context of an application load balancer, traffic is routed to specific targets (EC2 instances, containers, IP addresses and Lambda functions) based on the content of the request (layer seven). Applications like microservices and container-based apps benefit greatly from the enhanced request routing provided by Application Load Balancer when it comes to advanced load balancing of HTTP and HTTPS traffic. The latest SSL/TLS cyphers and protocols are always used by Application Load Balancer to simplify and improve security.
• Layer 7 balancing
AWS EC2 instances, microservices, and containers can all be used to load balanced HTTP/HTTPS traffic (such as X-Forwarded-For headers).
• Security features
With Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC), you may build and manage security groups for extra networking and security choices. You can set an Application Load Balancer to be internet-facing or establish an internal (non-internet-facing) load balancer without public IP addresses. ALB supports http desync guardian-based Desync safeguards. This new capability protects against HTTP vulnerabilities caused by Desync without compromising availability or latency. Depending on the application design, customers can also pick their tolerance level for questionable requests.
• Outposts Support
This feature allows you to extend AWS infrastructure, services, and tools to almost any datacenter, co-location facility, or on-premises facility for a truly consistent hybrid experience. With no user intervention, customers can setup ALBs on supported instance types and have them autoscale to the rack’s capacity. Also, customers can receive notifications about their load balancing capacity needs. Customers can provision and manage ALBs on Outposts using the same AWS Console, APIs, and CLI as in the Region.
• Support for HTTPS
HTTPS termination between clients and a load balancer is supported. As part of pre-defined security policies, Application Load Balancers can handle SSL certificates via AWS’ Identity and Access Management (IAM).
• Http/2 and gRPC
HTTP/2 is a new version of HTTP that allows multiple requests to be sent on the same connection. It also compresses header data before sending it to customers and supports SSL connections. ALB can load balance gRPC traffic between microservices or clients and services. This permits simple integration of gRPC traffic control into infrastructures without affecting customers’ clients or services. gRPC is the protocol of choice for inter-service communication in microservice architectures. Its advantages over legacy protocols like REST include efficient binary serialisation, language support, and the inherent advantages of HTTP/2 including smaller network footprint, compression, and bi-directional streaming.
• Offload TLS
Create an HTTPS listener for encrypted connections (also known as SSL offload). This functionality encrypts traffic between your load balancer and clients using SSL or TLS. Client TLS session termination is supported by ALB. This lets you use the load balancer to terminate TLS while keeping the source IP address for your back-end apps. To satisfy compliance and security standards, TLS listeners can use predefined security policies. Your server certificates can be managed by AWS Certificate Manager or AWS Identity and Access Management. With SNI, a single TLS listener can serve many secure websites. If the client’s hostname matches numerous certificates, the load balancer uses a clever selection process to choose the best one.
• Sticky Events
Sticky sessions allow clients to send requests to the same target. ALBs support both duration-based and application-based cookies. How long should your load balancer send a user’s request to the same target? Group-level sticky sessions are enabled. Across all target groups, utilise a mix of duration-based, application-based, and no stickiness.
• Native IPv6 Support
Application Load Balancers support native IPv6 in a VPC. This allows clients to connect to the ALB through IPv4 or IPv6.
• Containerized Apps Help
An application load balancer can load balance several ports on an Amazon EC2 instance to support containers. Deep integration with Amazon ECS delivers fully managed containers. When a container is scheduled on an EC2 instance, ECS allows you to provide a dynamic port in the task definition. The ECS scheduler adds the task to the load balancer over this port.
• Routing by Content
- An Application Load Balancer can route a request to a service based on the request’s content, such as the Host field, Path URL, HTTP header, HTTP method, Query string, or Source IP address.
- Routing based on the Host field in the HTTP header allows you to route to several domains from one load balancer.
- Route a client request based on the HTTP header’s URL path.
- HTTP header-based routing: You can route a client request based on any HTTP header value.
- Route a client request using any standard or custom HTTP method.
- Route a client request using a query string or query parameters.
- Source IP address CIDR routing: You can route a client request depending on the source IP address CIDR.
• Target IP addresses
You can load balance any AWS or on-premises application using the IP addresses of the backends as targets. This permits load balancing to any IP address and interface on an instance. Each application on the same instance can share a security group and a port. IP addresses can also be used to load balance applications hosted on-premises (through Direct Connect or VPN), peer VPCs, and EC2-Classic (using ClassicLink). Load balancing between AWS and on-premises resources helps you migrate, burst, or failover to the cloud.
• Targets for Lambda
ALBs can now deliver HTTP(S) requests from any HTTP client, including web browsers, by executing Lambda functions. You can use a load balancer to route requests to different Lambda functions. An Application Load Balancer can act as a common HTTP endpoint for server-based and serverless apps. You may use Lambda functions to build a whole website or mix EC2 instances, containers, on-premises servers, and Lambda functions.
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Network Load Balancer:
Network Load Balancer (NLB) routes connections to targets (Amazon EC2 instances, microservices, and containers) within Amazon VPC. Network Load Balancer can handle millions of requests per second while maintaining ultra-low latency. Network Load Balancer uses a single static IP address per Availability Zone to accommodate sudden and erratic traffic patterns. It works with Auto Scaling, Amazon EC2 Container Service, Amazon CloudFormation, and AWS Certificate Manager (ACM).
• Connection-based Ladder 4 balancing
You may load balance TCP and UDP traffic to target instances, microservices, and containers on Amazon EC2.
• TLS Offloading
TLS Offloading Supports Client TLS Session Termination This lets you use the load balancer to terminate TLS while keeping the source IP address for your back-end apps. To satisfy compliance and security standards, TLS listeners can use predefined security policies. Your server certificates can be managed by AWS Certificate Manager or AWS Identity and Access Management.
• Session Recurrence
In order to route requests from the same client to the same target, sticky sessions (source IP affinity) are used as a technique. The term “stickiness” is used in the context of a certain target audience.
• Short Intervals of Time
For latency-sensitive applications, Network Load Balancer provides exceptionally low latencies. With SNI, a single TLS listener can serve many secure websites. If the client’s hostname matches numerous certificates, the load balancer uses a clever selection process to choose the best one.
• Keep track of the original Internet protocol (IP) address.
The back-end can view the client’s IP address thanks to the Network Load Balancer’s ability to preserve the client’s originating IP. Applications can then use this data for additional processing.
• Support for a static Internet Protocol address
Static IP addresses for each Availability Zone (subnet) are automatically generated by Network Load Balancer and can be utilised by applications as the load balancer’s front-end addresses.
• Ease of use: Elastic IP
It’s also possible, with Network Load Balancer, to issue a static IP address to each Availability Zone (subnet).
• DNS Fail-over (Domain Name System)
AWS Route 53 will send traffic to load balancer nodes in other Availability Zones if there are no healthy targets registered with the Network Load Balancer in a given zone, or if the Network Load Balancer nodes in that zone are unhealthy.
• A connection to the Amazon Route 53 service
The integration with Route 53 will remove the unresponsive load balancer IP address from service and redirect traffic to an alternate Network Load Balancer in a different area in the case that your Network Load Balancer is unresponsive.
• Integration with the Amazon Web Services
Network It is integrated with other AWS services such as Auto Scaling, Elastic Container Service (ECS), CloudFormation, Elastic BeanStalk, CloudWatch, Config, CloudTrail and CodeDeploy (ACM).
• Central API Support
A single API support network Load Balancer and Application Load Balancer both use the same API. To support containerized apps, you’ll be able to interact with target groups, perform health checks, and distribute load across several ports on the same Amazon EC2 instance.
• Isolation by Zones
For application designs with only one zone, the Network Load Balancer is the answer. Automatic fail-over occurs if anything goes wrong in an unfailingly healthy Availability Zone. Network Load Balancer can be enabled in a single Availability Zone to serve architectures that require zonal isolation, despite our recommendation that customers deploy the load balancer and targets in several Availability Zones.
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Gateway Load Balancer:
You can effortlessly manage and scale your third-party virtual appliances with Gateway Load Balancer. A single gateway allows you to distribute traffic across several virtual appliances and scale them up or down, depending on your needs. – Increased network availability is achieved through reducing the number of points of failure. AWS Marketplace allows you to search, test, and purchase virtual appliances from third-party manufacturers. Whether you want to stick with your current vendors or try a new one, this seamless deployment experience makes it easier to see the benefits of your virtual appliances right away.
• Auto-scale your virtual appliance instances
Instances of Gateway Load Balancer can be set up with AWS Auto Scaling groups. This guarantees you always have enough resources. The Gateway Load Balancer creates more instances as traffic grows. Those instances are killed when traffic returns to normal.
• High-availability virtual appliances from third parties
Gateway Load Balancer guarantees high availability and dependability by rerouting traffic when a virtual appliance fails. Gateway Load Balancer periodically checks the health of each virtual appliance instance to ensure they are available. Unhealthy appliances are labelled unhealthy when they fail too many tests in a row.
• Continually measure health and performance
Amazon CloudWatch metrics per Availability Zone may monitor your Gateway Load Balancer. In addition, load balancer metrics (such as target appliance instances counted, target health status, target counted, current number of active flows and max flows) and VPC Endpoint metrics (such as processed bytes and processed packets) are included (such as the number of Gateway Load Balancer Endpoint mappings).
• AWS Marketplace simplifies deployment.
AWS Marketplace makes it easy to deploy new virtual appliances. This improves user experience and simplifies deployment even more.
• Using Gateway Load Balancer Endpoints, secure AWS network connectivity
Gateway Load Balancer Endpoints are a new form of VPC endpoint that connects traffic sources and destinations. It connects Internet Gateways, VPCs, and other network resources privately using PrivateLink technology. Your data is never exposed to the internet because it is routed through AWS.
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