Amazon Neptune

Amazon Neptune

Amazon Neptune lets you build interactive graph applications that can query billions of connections in milliseconds. Complexity and difficulty in tuning SQL queries for heavily connected data are two of the most common drawbacks of this technology. Apache TinkerPop Gremlin and W3C’s SPARQL are two prominent graph query languages that you may use with Amazon Neptune instead to execute powerful searches on related data.

Using Amazon Neptune, you are able to construct interactive graph applications to query billions of connections in a matter of milliseconds. The most typical disadvantages of utilising this technology include its complexity as well as the difficulty in fine-tuning SQL searches for data that is densely related. You may run powerful searches on related data by using Amazon Neptune and one of the main graph query languages, such as Apache TinkerPop Gremlin or W3C’s SPARQL. Both of these languages are available from the W3C. When you accomplish this, your code will become simpler, and the creation of relationship-processing apps will move forward more quickly. It is anticipated that Amazon Neptune would achieve availability rates greater than 99.99 percent by combining the database engine with an SSD-backed virtualized storage layer that has been adapted specifically for database workloads. The self-healing Neptune storage is fault tolerant, and it is possible to fix disc faults in the background without having an effect on the availability of the database. The automatic identification and restart of Neptune’s databases are designed to eliminate the need for crash recovery or a full database cache rebuild in the event that either of these processes become necessary. In the event that the entire instance crashes, Neptune is designed to automatically fail over to one of up to 15 read replicas. Launching an Amazon Neptune database instance is a simple process that can be accomplished in a matter of seconds using the Neptune Management Console. Neptune automatically scales storage to provide constant performance by increasing storage capacity and rebalancing input/output operations.

How it Works


Effortless and Expandable

  • Queries on graphs can benefit from high throughput and low latency.

It was built exclusively for Amazon and is a high-performance graph database engine To quickly evaluate queries over large graphs, Neptune uses a scale-up, in-memory optimised architecture, which effectively stores and navigates graph data. Neptune can be used with Gremlin or SPARQL to conduct fast and simple queries.

  • Database Compute Resources can be easily scaled.

When scaling up or down your production cluster, you may do it with only a few clicks in the AWS Management Console. In most cases, scaling activities are completed within a few seconds.

  • Automated Storage Scalability

Amazon Neptune will automatically raise the volume of your database as your storage needs grow. You have the option of using up to 64 terabytes of storage space. There’s no need to add more database storage to keep up with future expansion.

In addition to the automatic adjustment of database volume, it is worth noting that the minimum storage capacity for an Amazon Neptune database is 10GB. This ensures that you have a solid starting point for your storage needs. From there, as your usage increases, the database storage will seamlessly scale up in 10GB increments. This scalability allows your Amazon Neptune storage to grow organically without any impact on database performance.

With a maximum storage limit of 64TB, you can rest assured that your database can handle extensive data storage requirements. The incremental growth in storage capacity is designed to accommodate your evolving needs, eliminating the need for proactive planning or adding more storage space manually.

  • Read Replicas with Low Latency.

Increase read throughput by creating up to 15 database read replicas for high-volume application requests. Amazon Neptune replicas offer cost savings and the avoidance of writing to replica nodes. The latency time for read requests can be reduced to single-digit milliseconds on numerous occasions by using more processing power. Applications don’t have to worry about keeping track of new and removed copies because Neptune only has one endpoint for read queries.

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Quality and Reliability

  • Incident Management as well as Repair.

Your Amazon Neptune database and underlying EC2 instance are always in good shape, so you can relax. The instance that runs your database is responsible for restarting it and any associated processes. Because the database redo logs do not need to be replayed, instance restart times with Neptune recovery are often under 30 seconds. It also shields the database buffer cache from the processes of the database, allowing it to withstand a database restart.

  • Using Read Replicas in Multi-AZ Deployments

In the event of an instance failure, Neptune will immediately transition to one of up to 15 Neptune replicas located in any of three Availability Zones. If there are no Neptune replicas, Neptune will attempt to automatically construct a new database instance in the event of a failure.

  • Self-healing and fault-tolerant Storage

Replication occurs six times across three availability zones for every 10GB of database storage. Amazon Neptune’s fault-tolerant storage can lose up to two copies of data without affecting database read availability in order to ensure database write availability. Neptune’s storage is self-healing for all of its data blocks and discs.

  • Point-in-time recovery and background incremental backups.

To recover your instance, you can use Amazon Neptune’s backup tool. You can use this method to recover your database up to the last five minutes of its retention period. You can specify a retention time for your automated backups of up to 35 days. Amazon S3, a service meant to guarantee 99.999999999 percent uptime, is used to store automated backups. The Neptune backups have no effect on database performance.

  • Snapshots of the database

In Amazon S3, database snapshots are replicas of your instance that are created on demand and kept until they are permanently removed. For time and space savings, they use automated incremental snapshots. You can utilise a Database Snapshot at any time to create a new instance of the database.

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APIs for the Open Graph

  • Gremlin supports Apache TinkerPop’s Property Graph

Property graphs have grown in popularity recently because many developers are already familiar with relational models. Property Graphs may be quickly and simply explored with Gremlin traversal language. The Property Graph concept is supported by Amazon Neptune, which provides a Gremlin Websockets server that is compatible with the newest TinkerPop version.. Neptune makes it quick and easy to build Gremlin traversals over property graphs. By modifying the Gremlin service configuration, Neptune can easily be linked into existing Gremlin applications.

  • W3C’s RDF 1.1 and SPARQL specifications are supported.

Because of its adaptability, RDF is a popular choice for highly complex information domains. Existing RDF datasets that are free or open to the public include Wikidata and PubChem, a database of chemical substances. RDF 1.1 and SPARQL 1.1 (Query and Update) of the W3C Semantic Web standards can be accessed via an HTTP REST interface using Amazon Neptune. For new and existing graph applications, Neptune’s SPARQL endpoint is a simple way to get started.

Exceptionally Secure

  • Isolation of the Network

In order to isolate your database within your own virtual network on-premises, you can utilise Amazon VPC to connect to Amazon Neptune using industry-standard encrypted IPsec VPNs. It’s also possible to manage network access to your database instances through the Neptune VPC configuration.

  • Permissions at the Resource Level

This interface allows Amazon Neptune users and groups to govern access to certain resources like database snapshots, database parameter groups and other AWS IAM user or group permissions. Tag your Neptune resources and control the actions that your IAM users or groups can perform on groups of resources that share a tag as an additional choice (and tag value). So, for example, only Database Administrators can make changes to or delete “Production” database instances, whereas developers can do so for “Development” database instances with IAM rules.

Just remember Amazon RDS permissions and resources are required to use Amazon Neptune because Neptune leverages operational technology from Amazon RDS, including instance lifecycle management, encryption-at-rest using Amazon Key Management Service (KMS) keys, and security groups management. By utilizing the capabilities of Amazon RDS, Neptune can provide high-performance graph database services that are specifically designed for use on the Amazon platform. 

  • Encryption

It is possible to produce and manage the encryption keys used by Amazon Neptune to safeguard your databases using AWS Key Management Service (KMS). To ensure that any data stored in the underlying storage as well as automated backups, snapshots or replicas in the same cluster is safeguarded by Neptune-encrypted database instances.

  • Auditing

Recording database events with Amazon Neptune has minimal impact on database performance. Studying logs now can help with database management, security, governance, and regulatory compliance issues in the future In addition, you can transmit audit logs to the Amazon CloudWatch service to keep track of what’s happening in your environment.

Completely Organized

  • Simple to Use

It’s easy to use Amazon Neptune. Create a new Neptune database instance using the AWS Management Console. The database instance class you supplied is pre-configured in Neptune database instances. You may create a database and attach it to your app in just a few minutes. It is possible to fine-tune your database by using Database Parameter Groups.

  • Operate easily

Amazon Neptune makes it easy to build a high-performance graph database. It eliminates the need for specific graph indexes using the Neptune API. A timeout and memory limit are provided for queries that consume too much memory or time out.

  • Measuring and metric

Amazon Neptune uses Amazon CloudWatch to keep tabs on your database instances. The AWS Management Console displays over 20 critical database operational indicators, such as CPU, RAM, storage, query performance, and active connections, for database instances running on Amazon Web Services’s cloud platform.

  • Auto-Patching

In order to maintain your database patched, use Amazon Neptune. It is possible to control patching with Database Engine Version Management (DEV).

  • Database Event Alerts

Email and SMS alerts can be used to notify users of critical database events, such as an automated failover. Subscribing to database events can be done through AWS Management Console.

  • Database Cloning

Neptune from Amazon allows for multi-terabyte database clusters to be quickly cloned in minutes. Application development, testing, database upgrades, and analytical queries can all benefit from cloning. Having immediate access to data improves software development and updates, as well as analytics.

You can clone an Amazon Neptune database with a few mouse clicks in the Management Console. Three Availability Zones are used to reproduce the clone.

Rapid Bulk Data Loading

  • Bagging of Property Graphs

Amazon Neptune’s bulk loading capability makes it easy to load large amounts of data from S3. A REST interface is used to do this. CSV delimiter format is used to load data into the nodes and edges of the graph. Neptune Property Graph bulk loading has more information.

  • RDF Bulk Load

It is possible to load RDF data stored in S3 using Amazon Neptune in a fast and efficient manner. A REST interface is used to do this. N-Triples (NT), N-Quads (NQ), RDF/XML, and Turtle RDF are all supported serialisations. Neptune RDF bulk loading documentation can be found here.


Pay Only for the Services You Utilize

Amazon Neptune eliminates the need for a substantial upfront expenditure; instead, you pay an hourly charge for each instance that you start. Neptune database instances can also be rapidly deleted once you’ve finished working with them. Having a backup plan in place is unnecessary because you only pay for the storage you utilise.

Using Amazon Neptune services does not require any long-term commitments or upfront payments. You don’t have to pay a monthly fee while using On-Demand instances; instead, you pay per hour. Purchasing database capacity ahead of demand is ideal for development, testing, and other short-term workloads since it spares you the time and effort of complicated planning that comes with doing so.

Discounts are available on read-write primary instances as well as Amazon Neptune replicas, which are utilised to boost reads and enhance failover. Neptune database storage charges are billed in GB-month increments, whereas I/O charges are billed in million-request increments. Aside from the storage and I/Os you use, you don’t have to give any resources in advance of using Neptune. All database cluster snapshots and automated database backups requested by customers will incur a per GB-month charge for backup storage. Neptune’s data transfer charges are based on the volume of data being sent in and out of the planet. In the Ready State, the Amazon Neptune Workbench charges by the instance hour and allows you to engage with your Neptune cluster using Jupyter notebooks (hosted by Amazon SageMaker).

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